This work presents a detailed breakdown of the energy conversion chains from the electrical grid to the vehicle, considering battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). The traditional well-to-wheel analysis is adapted to a grid to mobility approach by introducing the intermediate steps of useful electricity, energy carrier and on-board storage. A specific attention is given to an effective coupling with renewable electricity sources and associated storage needs.
Using actual market data, it is shown that, compared to FCEVs, BEVs and their infrastructure are twice more efficient in the conversion of renewable electricity to a mobility service. A much larger difference between BEVs and FCEVs is usually reported in the literature. Focusing on recharging events, this work additionally shows that the infrastructure efficiencies of both electric vehicles (EVs) types are very close, with 57% from grid to on-board storage for hydrogen refilling stations and 66% for fast chargers coupled with battery storage. Slow charging modes can achieve a charging infrastructure efficiency of 78% for residential energy storage systems coupled with AC chargers.